Scientific Studies

2D nanomaterials encompass a wide variety of materials under their umbrella- each with its own physical, mechanical, chemical, and optical property. This diversity in their properties make them apt for varied applications in the healthcare space ranging from drug delivery systems to tissue regeneration.

 

Current research trends in 2D nanomaterials and some of their promising biomedical applications

Chimene, D. , Alge, D. L. and Gaharwar, A. K. (2015), Two‐Dimensional Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Emerging Trends and Future Prospects. Adv. Mater., 27: 7261-7284. doi:10.1002/adma.201502422

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Magnesium – the fourth most commonly found element in the body, makes up an integral part of bones and teeth. Magnesium compounds such as magnesium phosphates can play an important role in mineral metabolism to promote hydroxyapatite crystal formation and bone calcification. Simultaneously, the explosion in the use of 2D nanomaterials over the last few years can be attributed to their unique range of properties.

This article describes a novel 2D sodium-magnesium-phosphate system that brings forth the biocompatibility and regenerative properties of the complex in a hydrogel form for biomedical application. The complex acts as a scaffold for the proliferation of oestoblast cells that bring forth the formation of new bone tissues and thus heal the bony defect caused by infection.

 

Highmagnification TEM micrograph of the carbon−platinum replica grid showing the laminar structure of the ultrathin nanocrystals with face to- face arrangement and thickness of 4−7 nm

SEM micrograph showing the adhesion and colonization of osteoblast cells onto NMP nanocrystals

μ-CT 3D models of the bone defects at days 3, 7, and 14 show enhanced bone healing among NMP-treated defect

Tamimi, Faleh (2016/08/10). Two-Dimensional Magnesium Phosphate Nanosheets Form Highly Thixotropic Gels That Up-Regulate Bone Formation. Nano Letters, 16, 4779-4787. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00636

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Compared to the tooth enamel, the titanium implants are more prone to the abrasive effects of toothpastes. The consequent changes in the physiochemical properties of the implant structures decreases their longevity.

The recent discovery of "clay-like” material composed of 2D magnesium phosphate nanocrystals (NMP) provides a promising alternative to cleaning of these implants with additional bone regeneration and healing properties. 

As per Fluorescence Microscopy studies (as depicted below), there has been a reduction in the bacterial load on the implant surface from 44·103 ± 27·103/µm2 to 2·103 ± 1·102/µm2 . 

Comparing the bacterial removal efficiency of the prophylaxis brush, the optimized implant-paste and toothpaste: a: significantly different from control Ti, b: significantly different from biofilm-contaminated group, c: significantly different from Ti surfaces cleaned with the prophylaxis brush, d: significantly different from Ti surfaces brushed with the optimized implant-paste (p < 0.05).

Also, as evidenced from the following Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope images, there is no change in the roughness of the Ti implant surface on brushing with the novel prophylaxis paste. 

 

Effect of different cleaning methods on Ti surface roughness. Bar charts (A) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope images (B) comparing the surface roughness of control Ti surfaces (freshly polished) after brushing with the prophylaxis brush alone, or in combination with either implant past or tooth paste (Brushing time is 1 minute). a: significantly different from control Ti surfaces, b: significantly different from Ti surfaces cleaned with the prophylaxis brush, c: significantly different from Ti surfaces brushed with the optimized implant-paste (p < 0.05).

The XPS study of a contaminated implant surface, provided evidence regarding the similar elemental composition of a clean implant surface and an implant brushed with the novel implant paste. The added benefit of a lower surface roughness can also be highlighted.

Al-Hashedi AA, Laurenti M and Tamimi F (2016). From toothpaste to "implant-paste": A new product for cleaning dental implants. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. Conference Abstract: 10th World Biomaterials Congress. doi: 10.3389/conf.FBIOE.2016.01.02126